Bibliotheca Universalis Pricetoniensis: From Human Beginnings to the Ancient Near East


1. Mesopotamian, Syrian, Levantine

The Old Testament (Hebrew, Septuagint, Vulgate, Douai-Rheims, and King James)

Epic of Gilgamesh

Babylonian Creation Epic (Myth of Marduk and Ti’amat, called Enuma Elish)

Myth of the Deluge

Descent of Ishtar

Hymn to Ishtar

Legend of Sargon


Canaanite myth of Aqhat

Canaanite myth of Baal and Anath

Baal and Mot

Code of Hammurabi

The Amarna Letters

2. Egyptian

The Memphite Theology of Creation

The Memphite Drama

The Ramesseum Drama

The Deliverance of Mankind from Destruction

The Story of Sinuhe

The Story of the Two Brothers

The Hymn to Aton

Hymn of Victory of Merneptah

The Instruction of Ptah-hotep

The Instruction of Amenem-opet

Primary texts to be found in

Pritchard, The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures (1958)

Gaster, Thespis: Ritual, Myth, and Drama in the Ancient Near East (1950)

The Oldest Stories in the World (1952)


1. Ancient Near Eastern Civilization

Durant, The Story of Civilization, vol. I: Our Oriental Heritage (1935)

Kramer, The Sumerians (1963)

History Begins at Sumer (1956)

Mallowan, Early Mesopotamia and Iran (1965)

Saggs, The Greatness that was Babylon (1962)

Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt (1951)

Steindorff and Seele, When Egypt Ruled the East (1947)

Smith, The Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1897)

Moorhouse, The Triumph of the Alphabet (1953)

2. Art and Architecture

Janson, A History of Art (1962)

Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method (1896)

Lange and Hirmer, Egypt: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting in Three Thousand Years


De Cenival, Egyptian Architecture (1963)

3. Anthropology; pre-historic psychology and religion; modes of religious experience and symbolic thought; mythic consciousness; the hero, etc.

Beals and Hoijer, An Introduction to Anthropology (n.d)

Braidwood, Prehistoric Men (1964)

Levy-Bruhl, How Natives Think (1926)

L’ame primtive (1927)

Onians, The Origins of European Thought (1951)

Cassirer, An Essay on Man (1944)

The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (1955)

Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1915)

Toynbee, An Historian’s Approach to Religion (1956)

James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)

Otto, Naturalism and Religion (1907)

The Idea of the Holy (first English trans. 1923)

Smith, The Religion of the Semites (1899)

Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity (1940)

Frazer, The Golden Bough (1890)

Jung, Collected Works, passim

Neumann, The Origins and History of Consciousness (1954)

Campbell, The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology (1962)

The Mythic Image (1974)

The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949)

Carlyle, On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (1841)

Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero (1914)

Raglan, The Hero: A Study in Tradition, Myth, and Drama (1936)

Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return (1954)

The Sacred and the Profane (1957)

Myth and Reality (1963)

A History of Religious Ideas, vol I: From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian Mysteries (1980)

Graves, The White Goddess (1948)

E.O. James, Comparative Religion (1933)

Reinach, Orpheus: A History of Religions (1930)

4. Ancient Near Eastern Religion and Mythology

Most of those listed in #3, above, especially Frazer, Smith, Albright, Jung, Campbell, Rank, Raglan, Eliade.

Herodotus (c. B.C. 484-425), Histories, I, II

Plutarch (c. A.D. 46-120), De Iside et Osiride

Hooke, Middle Eastern Mythology (1963)

Frankfort et al., Before Philosophy (1946)

Gaster, Thespis, op. cit.

The Oldest Stories, op. cit.

Robertson, Pagan Christs (1903)

Cumont, Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism (first Eng. trans. 1911)

Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (1899)

Campbell, The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology (1964)

Campbell, ed., The Mysteries: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks (1955)

Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (1968)

Neumann, The Great Mother (1955)

5. The Old Testament

Buttrick et al., eds., The Interpreter’s Bible, vols. I-VI (1952)

Driver, An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (1897)

Anderson, G.A., Understanding the Old Testament (1957)

Anderson, B.W., A Critical Introduction to the Old Testament (1959)

Scott, The Relevance of the Prophets (1944)

Robinson, Prophecy and the Prophets in Ancient Israel (1923)

Ginsberg, Legends of the Bible (1909)

6. Hebrew Religion

Smith, op. cit.

Albright, op. cit.

Oesterley and Robinson, Hebrew Religion: Its Origin and Development (1930)

Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel, vol. II: Religious Institutions (1961)

Gaster, Oldest Stories, op. cit.